API List 4 >>
Dihydrocodeine Hydrogen Tartrate
>> Drug Description
Dihydrocodeine hydrogen tartrate
Dihydrocodeine, also called DHC, Drocode, Paracodeine and Parzone and by the
brand names of Synalgos DC, Panlor DC, Panlor SS, Contugesic, SS Bron,
Drocode, Paracodin, Codidol, Didor Continus, Dicogesic, Codhydrine,
Dekacodin, DH-Codeine, Didrate, Dihydrin, Hydrocodin, Nadeine, Novicodin,
Rapacodin, Rikodeine,Fortuss, Remedeine, Dico, and DF-118 amongst others
(e.g. PARAMOL), is a semi-synthetic opioid analgesic developed in Germany in
the first decade of the 20th Century and put on the market in 1911. It is
prescribed for postoperative pain, severe dyspnea, or as an antitussive.
Dihydrocodeine tartrate is also present in co-dydramol. In some countries,
controlled-release dihydrocodeine and/or the immediate release forumulations
are used as an alternative to methadone in treatment of opioid dependency
Commonly available as tablets, solutions, elixirs, and other oral forms,
dihydrocodeine is also available in some countries as an injectable solution
for deep subcutaneous and intra-muscular administration. Intravenous
administration could be dangerous due to pulmonary oedema and the potential
of anaphylaxis as it is with codeine. At one time in the past and possibly
now, dihydrocodeine suppositories also existed.
Dihydrocodeine is used as an alternative to or incrementation on codeine for
the above mentioned spectrum of situations. It is available as the following
salts, in rough descending order of frequency of use: bitartrate, phosphate,
hydrochloride, tartrate, hydroiodide, methyliodide, hydrobromide, and
sulfate. The salt to free base conversion factors are 0,67 for the
bitartrate, 0,73 for the phosphate, and 0,89 for the hydrochloride.
Dihydrocodeine was developed during the intense international search for
more effective antitussives, especially to help reduce the airborne spread
of tuberculosis, pertussis, pneumonia, and similar diseases, in the years
from c.a. 1895 to 1915, and is similar in chemical structure to codeine.
Depending on individual metabolism, dihydrocodeine is 100 to 150 percent as
strong as codeine. Although dihydrocodeine does have
extremely active metabolites, in the form of dihydromorphine and
dihydromorphine-6-glucuronide (one hundred times more potent), these
metabolites are produced in such small amount that they do not have
clinically important effects.