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Chemical Formulas

Dextromethorphan Hbr Side Effects

extromethorphan hydrobromide monohydrate occurs as white crystals, is sparingly soluble in water, and is freely soluble in alcohol. The empirical formula is C18H25NO•HBr•H2O, and the molecular weight of the monohydrate is 370.33. Dextromethorphan HBr monohydrate is dextrorotatory with a specific rotation of +27.6 degrees in water (20 degrees C, sodium D-line).

Dextromethorphan hydrobromide is a salt of the methyl ether of the dextrorotatory isomer of levorphanol, a narcotic analgesic. It is chemically designated as 3-methoxy-17-methyl-9α, 13α, 14α- morphinan hydrobromide monohydrate with the following structural formula.

Dextromethorphan is a synthetically produced substance that is related to codeine. It has central cough suppressant action but it does not feature the untoward effects of the opioids: it does not have analgesic, sedating or constipating effects. Its metabolism is genetically polymorphous, similar to the codeine metabolism. Since its metabolites can be traced in urine, dextrometorphan is suitable as a testing substance for the definition of the respective phenotype. The pharmacological potential of dextromethorphan does not appear to be completely exploited yet. According to more recent studies (performed predominantly on animals), the substance also has antiepileptic, neuroprotective, and antiparkinsonian properties.

Promethazine HCl occurs as a white to faint yellow, practically odorless, crystalline powder which slowly oxidizes and turns blue on prolonged exposure to air. It is freely soluble in water and soluble in alcohol

Dextromethorphan is rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and exerts its effect in 15 to 30 minutes. The duration of action after oral administration is approximately three to six hours.

Promethazine is a phenothiazine derivative which differs structurally from the antipsychotic phenothiazines by the presence of a branched side chain and no ring substitution. It is thought that this configuration is responsible for its relative lack (1/10 that of chlorpromazine) of dopamine antagonist properties.

Promethazine is an H1 receptor blocking agent. In addition to its antihistaminic action, it provides clinically useful sedative and antiemetic effects.

The drug acts centrally and elevates the threshold for coughing. It is about equal to codeine in depressing the cough reflex. In therapeutic dosage dextromethorphan does not inhibit ciliary activity.


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