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Safrole CAS number 94-59-7

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sassafras oil,






HOME >> Chemicals >> Chemicals List 1 >> Safrole


CAS number 94-59-7

Safrole Formula C10H10O2

Safrole IUPAC name 5-(2-Propenyl)-1,3-benzodioxoleSafrole powder
Other names Shikimol 5-Allylbenzo[d][1,3]dioxole


Molar mass 162.19 g/mol
Molecular Formula C10H10O2
Molecular Weight 162.19
Density 1.096 g/cm3
Melting point 11 C
Boiling point 232-234 C

Safrole is a colorless or slightly yellow oily liquid. It is typically extracted from the root-bark or the fruit of sassafras plants in the form of sassafras oil, or synthesized from other related methylenedioxy compounds.

It is the principal component of brown camphor oil, and is found in small amounts in a wide variety of plants, where it functions as a natural pesticide.

Safrole is an ingredient used to manufacture Ecstasy, a psychoactive drug that affects the brain's use of the naturally-produced chemical serotonin, which regulates mood and aggression.The DEA issued a public advisory in May 2003 warning chemical distributors about the drug-making potential of safrole, which is a substance naturally found in the oils from sassafras and camphor trees.

The Drug Enforcement Administration and state/local law enforcement authorities have noted an alarming trend involving illicit MDMA production. MDMA (Ecstasy) is a major drug problem.

All businesses engaged in the sale of safrole and essential oils rich in safrole, such as, sassafras oil, "brown" camphor oil or camphor oil 1.070, also referred to as Chinese sassafras oil, should be aware of the use of these products by clandestine MDMA laboratory operators.

Criminal elements routinely use these List I chemicals in the illicit production of MDMA. DEA is aware that these criminals are searching, often over the Internet, for sources of supply for these List I chemicals.

This notice is being provided to:
Make you aware that safrole and essential oils rich in safrole, such as sassafras oil, and brown camphor oil or camphor oil 1.070, are List I chemicals;

Remind all distributors of these products that they must be registered with DEA, obtain identifying information from their customers, keep records, report suspicious orders to DEA, and "know their customer," to avoid unwittingly becoming a supplier to a clandestine MDMA laboratory;

Safrole was once widely used as a food additive in root beer, sassafras tea, and other common goods. However, the FDA barred the use of safrole after it was shown to be mildly carcinogenic.

Today, safrole is used for making soap and perfumes, aromatheraputic agents, and the insecticide heliotropin (piperonal butoxide). More recently, safrole has been used as the main precursor for the clandestine manufacture of MDMA (Ecstasy) and MDEA (Eve). The standard synthetic procedure for the production of MDMA from safrole is via isomerization in the presence of a strong base to isosafrole.

This is then oxidised to 3,4-methylenedioxy phenyl-2-propanone. Finally a reductive amination with either methylamine (to make MDMA) or ethylamine (to make MDEA).

It is nearly impossible to obtain large quantities of safrole and/or sassafras oil without arousing the suspicion of law enforcement, as Safrole is currently a List I chemical.


Safrole is shown to be a weak carcinogen in rats. It naturally occurs in a variety of spices such as basil, cinnamon, nutmeg, and pepper. In that role safrole is believed, although not proven, to make a small but measurable contribution to the overall incidence of human cancerToday, safrole is also banned for use in soap and perfumes by the International Fragrance Association.


Note /Government Notification: These chemicals are designated as those that are used in the manufacture of the controlled substances and are important to the manufacture of the substances. For any (Control Substance) products Import and Export *** subjected to your country government laws /control substance ACT.
Information: The information on this web page is provided to help you to work safely, but it is intended to be an overview of hazards, not a replacement for a full Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS). MSDS forms can be downloaded from the web sites of many chemical suppliers. ,also that the information on the PTCL Safety web site, where this page was hosted, has been copied onto many other sites, often without permission. If you have any doubts about the veracity of the information that you are viewing, or have any queries, please check the URL that your web browser displays for this page. If the URL begins " Benzoate.htm/" the page is maintained by the Safety Officer in Physical Chemistry at Oxford University. If not, this page is a copy made by some other person and we have no responsibility for it.
The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) was enacted into law by the Congress of the United States as Title II of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970.[1] The CSA is the federal U.S. drug policy under which the manufacture, importation, possession, use and distribution of certain substances is regulated. The Act also served as the national implementing legislation for the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs

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